Edwin Hubble discovered that the Universe expands. Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity had already foreseen.
What was there before of the universe? The question is entirely incorrect if we admit that time also began to count on the Universe. If there was no time, there was no "before".
Scientists try to explain the origin of the Universe with various theories, supported by observations and mathematical calculations that are consistent. The most accepted are the Big Bang and Inflationary theory, which complement each other.
It has been proven that galaxies are moving away, still today, from each other. If we turn the movie upside down, where will we get?
We will arrive at a point or moment when the entire observable Universe was compressed into an infinitely small, dense and hot point. This almost incomprehensible state existed only an instant of the first second of time.
Big Bang Theory
The big Bang Theory or great explosion, supposes that, between 13.7 billion and 13.9 billion years ago, all matter in the Universe was concentrated in an extraordinarily small area of space, a single point, and exploded. Matter was driven with great energy in all directions.
The shocks that inevitably occurred and a certain disorder caused matter to be grouped and concentrated more in some places in space, and the first stars and first galaxies were formed. Since then, the Universe continues in constant movement and evolution.
This theory about the origin of the Universe is based on rigorous observations and is mathematically correct from an instant after the explosion, but it has no admissible explanation for the zero moment of the origin of the Universe, called "singularity."
The inflationary theory Alan Guth tries to explain the origin and the first moments of the Universe. It is based on studies of very strong gravitational fields, such as those near a black hole.
Inflationary theory assumes that a single force was divided into the four we now know, producing the origin of the Universe.
The initial thrust lasted a practically invaluable time, but the explosion was so violent that, although the attraction of gravity slows the galaxies, the Universe still grows, expands.
|big Bang||Infinite density, zero volume.|
|10 e-43 secs.||Undifferentiated forces|
|10 e-34 secs.||Elementary particle soup|
|10 e-10 secs.||Protons and neutrons form|
|1 sec||10,000,000,000 º. Universe size Sun|
|3 minutes||1,000,000,000 º. Nuclei of atoms|
|30 minutes||300,000,000 º. Plasma|
|300,000 years||Atoms Transparent universe|
|1,000,000 years||Galaxy germs|
|100 million years||First galaxies|
|1 billion years||Stars The rest is cooled|
|5,000 million years||Milky Way Formation|
|10,000 million years||Solar and Earth System|
You cannot imagine the Big Bang as the explosion of a point of matter in a vacuum, because at this point all matter, energy, space and time were concentrated. There was neither "outside" nor "before." Space and time also expand with the Universe.
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|Origin and evolution of the Universe||Evolution of the Stars|